PV cells are manufactured using a series of deposition, doping, etch, and metallization processes on substrates that may be crystalline silicon wafers (cSi), glass, metal, polymer or other materials. PV cost-per-watt, efficiency, life, and other performance characteristics are directly related to substrate material and thin film materials used to form cells. Packaging of the PV cells into arrays and modules includes string and lamination steps. Like semiconductor wafer processing, most PV process steps require precision temperature solutions. Major differences between cSi and the other PV substrates is size of the material and whether the cells are manufactured with single, batch, or continuous process flows. Most PV processes require large area radiant and conduction heating solutions.
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